Concordance for The obligation of Catholics to promote peace.

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1.   y problems which today appear, or really are, insolvable." THE OBLIGATION OF CAT
2. V. MICHAEL J. GRUPA REV. LINUS A . LILLY, S J . A . R Y A N , D . D . , Chairman
3. ossibilities. One is obliged to act only when and to the extent that action is p
4. to the extent that action is physically and morally possible. What is there tha
5. nt that action is physically and morally possible. What is there that the Cathol
6. Universe ? Even if prayer were the only recourse, the assertion would still be
7. loquent paragraphs, included by the Holy Father in the Encyclical Summi Pontific
8. in His hands human counsels and sweetly turns them in whatever direction He wil
9. n, pray without ceasing; pray especially when you offer the Divine Sacrifice of
10. ails today hard, painful and, not rarely, heroic sacrifices; pray you, suffering
11. ce. Pray every one, pray uninterruptedly: "Pray without ceasing" (1 Thessalonian
12. easing" (1 Thessalonians v. 17). Happily, this exhortation of the Sovereign Pont
13. ger that many will not pray as fervently and as continuously as they might. Such
14. ot pray as fervently and as continuously as they might. Such persons will be so
15. yers will be accompanied by considerably less faith than that which will move mo
16. yer efficacious, by everyone who loyally accepts the exhortation quoted above [6
17. hortation quoted above [6] from the Holy Father. An Almighty God can bring about
18. ficient. By itself, it does not entirely fulfill our obligation to promote peace
19. romote peace. Prayer is efficacious only when it is supported and complemented b
20. on their fellow men we may very properly regard these personages with aversion.
21. further evil. And if we conscientiously pass this judgment upon any of these de
22. ough the peoples now at war are actively and deliberately supporting the evil an
23. now at war are actively and deliberately supporting the evil and unjust policies
24. porate character of a nation necessarily involves the suffering of the innocent
25. Huns" which was applied indiscriminately to the German people during the World W
26. s England, France, Germany, were largely responsible for the unjust and uncharit
27. course, American Catholics will not only set a good example to the nations at wa
28. efinite efforts toward peace are finally undertaken. In the matter of positive a
29. before the belligerents have completely exhausted themselves. If the war contin
30. of the contending parties is decisively defeated, there will be an acute danger
31. re will be an acute danger that the only gains will go to Stalin and Communism.
32. devastating consequences is too clearly desirable to require elaboration. There
33. the proper course of action is extremely difficult. Nevertheless, it is possible
34. n which we all believe. It is not likely that Britain and France would begin neg
35. if their main objectives were obviously put in jeopardy. On the other hand, ini
36. ation without endangering such obviously necessary and just objectives as the re
37. roaches are made which do not explicitly exclude these aims they ought to have t
38. lics can withdraw their support. Closely connected with the obligation to suppor
39. ce have not made their aims sufficiently clear and definite, beyond the eliminat
40. s. The latter requirement does not imply "Lebensraum" in the brutal form propose
41. o hope for a decisive change exclusively from the shock of war and its final iss
42. ; the heart of the victor all too easily is hardened; moderation and far-seeing
43. and ephemeral standards that depend only on the selfish interests of groups and
44. country out of war. This does not imply the advocacy of a cowardly, un-Christia
45. oes not imply the advocacy of a cowardly, un-Christian and impossible isolation.
46. ecause such participation would not only be injurious to herself but in the long
47. lity is conceivable but is very unlikely. It can become the subject of serious c
48. able." Such statements reveal not merely an attitude of defeatism but betray sha
49. of analysis. The forces that supposedly will drag us into the war against our w
50. n that direction can be thwarted if only we use our heads. This means continuous
51. da. This term has been used so generally and so loosely that in many minds it st
52. as been used so generally and so loosely that in many minds it stands for someth
53. ble or enduring. Insofar as it is merely misleading it can be adequately met by
54. s merely misleading it can be adequately met by a general attitude of criticism,
55. why the efficacy of propaganda is likely to be very much smaller now than it was
56. it was during the World War. Undoubtedly, the propaganda to which we shall be ex
57. International Peace remains essentially the same as it has always been. It is t
58. me as it has always been. It is to apply Christian moral principles to the deali
59. e with unlimited authority is not simply an error harmful to the internal life o
60. A disposition, in fact, of the divinely-sanctioned natural order divides the hu
61. s, nations or States, which are mutually independent in organization and in the
62. tion of these principles were adequately understood by the majority of the citiz
63. making war if they think it politically expedient. Our educational efforts must
64. cational efforts must be directed mainly to those who show some respect for the
65. e capable of applying it internationally. In the report on "International Ethics
66. about human brotherhood is particularly vital: Human brotherhood must be intens
67. l: Human brotherhood must be intensively and extensively preached to all groups
68. hood must be intensively and extensively preached to all groups and classes; in
69. all other divisions of the human family. And this doctrine should be repeated a
70. and adequate assimilation depend largely upon the simple process of repetition.
71. e crude, blatant, and, therefore, easily exposed and discredited. More frequentl
72. exposed and discredited. More frequently they are sly, insidious, and Pharisaica
73. iscredited. More frequently they are sly, insidious, and Pharisaical. For exampl
74. ndency and effect is to convey precisely that meaning. Any form of words which c
75. members of a race to suffer economically or in the esteem of their fellows or in
76. excessive nationalism, is still a deadly obstacle to the cause of universal brot
77. said Pope Pius XI, "form but one family in God." It will not be out of place he
78. s of the law of Christ -- becomes merely an occasion, an added incentive, to gra
79. e members of the same great human family, that other nations have an equal right
80. . In Summi Pontificatus the present Holy Father declares that the first of the p
81. n the Altar of the Cross to His Heavenly Father on behalf of sinful mankind. . .
82. ry country in which it has made its ugly appearance. A report of the Committee o
83. ribes three forms of nationalism, namely, "an absolute and exclusive loyalty to
84. s. Indeed, it has increased considerably within the last ten years. The irration
85. s incapable of living together peaceably, as constituting a lower or at least an
86. r than all foreign peoples, particularly those who inhabit some of the countries
87. es have pursued courses which constantly impel them toward war, and at least two
88. d at least two nations have deliberately scorned all rational methods of preserv
89. erful States shall somehow be completely overthrown, that victory shall rest upo
90. opeless. Let us repeat here the serenely confident words of the Holy Father: God
91. the serenely confident words of the Holy Father: God can do all things. As well
92. in His hands human counsels and sweetly turns them in whatever direction He wil
93. s to His all-high purposes. [18] Finally, let us consider the obligations of Ame
94. just peace, will not ensue automatically. . It will not necessarily be establish
95. automatically. . It will not necessarily be established through the triumph of a
96. the end of the same Encyclical, the Holy Father expresses hope for "the reconstr
97. d on justice and love . . ." Undoubtedly, he expects that this reconstruction wi
98. idual and collective morality: Then only will they succeed in effectuating and p
99. to impose fidelity to agreements loyally agreed upon, and to safeguard the just
100. s towards the prosperity of all. Finally, in his peace program outlined to the m
101. of Cardinals on Christmas Eve, the Holy Father envisaged a "reorganization of i
102. onal organization and institutions imply merely a revitalized and reformed Leagu
103. ganization and institutions imply merely a revitalized and reformed League of Na
104. er these questions, we can appropriately recall the declarations of Pope Benedic
105. ite in one sole society or rather family of peoples, both to guarantee their own
106. among the nations is the need generally recognized of reducing, if it is not po
107. f it is not possible to abolish entirely, the enormous military expenditure whic
108. at least "a -«»ciety or rather a family of peoples." Unfortunately [18] the Int
109. ther a family of peoples." Unfortunately [18] the International Organization set
110. ization set up at Versailles was greatly handicapped from the beginning. The Lea
111. mbodied in the treaty of peace. Probably this fact was mainly responsible for th
112. of peace. Probably this fact was mainly responsible for the opposition of Ameri
113. r history to be different and infinitely better; (2) the incompetence of the Lea
114. eless, we wish to summarize very briefly the practical implications of these thr
115. d developments in Germany, Russia, Italy and some other countries could not have
116. at our interests would have been gravely endangered, receives no support from wh
117. that our nation has obligations not only of justice but of charity to all other
118. ons. If it becomes evident, as it surely will, that the United States can make a
119. on justice and love"--to quote the Holy Father -- by joining a league or societ
120. by joining a league or society or family of peoples at the end of the present wa
121. "internationalists," which is frequently hurled at sincere men and women who str
122. us XI, "all peoples are one great family." Let us hope that Catholics will suppo
123. effective league, or society, or family of peoples. [20] APPENDIX N . C. W . C.
124. by Hitler? c. Possibilities of an early peace representing compromise with evil
125. or task of Peace Association -- to apply Christian moral principles to dealings
126. experience. Situations must be carefully studied, facts closely analyzed, even t
127. must be carefully studied, facts closely analyzed, even the historical backgroun
128. minorities." The Pope is here obviously referring to what has been in the past
129. le to permanent peace, the needs, namely, on the one hand, that nations and peop
130. y treating these two problems separately. I The Rights of Nations The Christian
131. their economic plight, or what probably has been more frequent, active pursuit
132. bsist. That high tariff walls frequently constitute a boomerang for the nation i
133. nomic difficulties. The spirit is easily identifiable behind this antiChristian
134. nationalism. Nations pursue exclusively their own interests, and do not scruple
135. e in the process to cripple economically other nations, because they have succum
136. he "haves." But the latter are partially guilty, by reason of their selfish prac
137. people or particular nation exclusively, but that they are given by the Creator
138. hat other nations are injured, or unduly deprived of that access to them necessa
139. s the moral right to squander recklessly or to exploit selfishly the wealth at h
140. ander recklessly or to exploit selfishly the wealth at his command, when his fel
141. en his fellow men are in want. Similarly, the rich and powerful State has not th
142. uperabundance. The demands of the family of mankind here override the claims of
143. red on the plea that they are physically impossible to fulfill. "Objectively the
144. ally impossible to fulfill. "Objectively these (resources) are enough to give al
145. s demand of justice does not necessarily mean physical possession of territories
146. on of territories or resources presently in the hands of other nations. Such a s
147. ting of direct control would undoubtedly produce more harm than good, and specif
148. ce more harm than good, and specifically would constitute a major injustice in m
149. e elimination of those tariffs presently checking the normal and healthy course
150. , at the very least, should make readily available their resources to the nation
151. ncyclical Quadrcigesimo Anno: "Then only will the economic and social order be s
152. the economic and social order be soundly established and attain its ends, when i
153. ese goods should be sufficient to supply all necessities and reasonable comforts
154. ded it be used with prudence is not only not a hindrance but is of singular help
155. of justice. The human race is one family of brothers under the Fatherhood of God
156. demands of justice are fulfilled readily. "We are more prompt to render justice
157. to render justice to those whom we truly love" (Thomas Aquinas). Justice and cha
158. of order, and charity effecting directly that union of hearts which is the essen
159. humanity as a whole is one that morally obligates all of humanity. A nation, su
160. e United States, moreover, will probably be a decisive one. If a spirit of extre
161. olicy and its actions, it is very likely that the problem will remain unsolved,
162. e-not" nations attempt to wrest forcibly from the "haves" their share of economi
163. which the United States would eventually participate, and that would insure the
164. ure grievances between nations, can only be suggested here. The second practical
165. the free flow of goods, thereby not only enhancing our own prosperity, but also
166. ortant step in this regard. It is hardly necessary to emphasize that an explicit
167. tice and charity is essential in finally solving this problem of the needs of pe
168. of different nations, which is primarily motivated by political considerations d
169. perverse human [27] nature, one largely of selfishness. The final solution awai
170. th in Europe, and in the world generally, is one of the most important and most
171. country of Europe, and not infrequently formed "island cultures," that is, grou
172. or culture, and separated geographically from their own larger ethnical groups.
173. aphical center lie four counties densely populated with Hungarians, completely c
174. ly populated with Hungarians, completely circumscribed by the people of the domi
175. in one way or another is not exclusively a modern phenomenon. Throughout history
176. nalism, the conviction has become widely accepted that nationality and the State
177. tical, in other words that a politically sovereign entity should coincide in all
178. self-determination" they have frequently striven for political independence, or
179. cultural character. The attempt forcibly to assimilate alien peoples within a na
180. emonstrates that minorities have usually adhered, in spite of persecution, to th
181. liar cultural life. Their case obviously differs from minorities which have volu
182. s from minorities which have voluntarily migrated to other countries already enj
183. ltural life to which they have willingly affixed themselves. The authors of the
184. d for ethnical reasons. Sometimes purely political or strategic [29] reasons dic
185. se of the Southern Tyrol, given to Italy, and containing 250,000 Austrians, who
186. 250,000 Austrians, who were immediately subjected to a ruthless process of cult
187. erritorial revision could not completely solve the minority problem. The demands
188. rmination is not absolute or universally valid. When the exercise of such a "rig
189. ercise of such a "right" would seriously harm the entire State, or when politica
190. e minority itself, the action can hardly be justified. Where the application of
191. eague of Nations until each had formally accepted a Declaration to respect the r
192. the difficulty. But the attempts rarely succeeded. Turkey and Greece were able,
193. rity in it. Once these two fundamentally different things cease to be confounded
194. Oppression is no longer confined merely to interference with customs and use of
195. es of people have been reduced virtually to the status of slaves, and brought to
196. ational rights occurred or was seriously threatened. The United States as a mora
197. United States to co-operate effectively in the solution of the minorities' prob
198. the use of their language, either orally or in writing, before the courts. ARTIC
199. ge and to exercise their religion freely therein. 1 T e x t of t r e a t y to be
200. tates, the British Empire, France, Italy and Japan hereby agree not to withhold
201. emand that the have-not nations actually possess resources now in possession of
202. e of new migrating minoritis, especially in a new land. Suggested Paper: Review
203. orial revision as not solving completely the minority problem. Is the right of n
204. lf-determination absolute or universally valid in ethics? 3. The League of Natio
205. of Nations and the declaration of newly-formed States to respect the rights of
206. ation, these are discussed both publicly and privately in order to secure able r
207. re discussed both publicly and privately in order to secure able revision. They
208. ics. The Association solicits especially the membership and cooperation of those
209. 18 -- Relations Between France and Italy. No. 19 -- Catholic Organization for Pe
210. of Nations, John Eppstein $2.50 Monthly News Letter (Issued during school month

Author: Eric Lease Morgan <emorgan@nd.edu>
Date created: October 16, 2010
Date updated: August 23, 2016
URL: http://concordance.library.nd.edu/app/