Concordance for The obligation of Catholics to promote peace.

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1.    The Obligation of Catholics to Promote Peace A Report of the Ethics Committee The Ri
2. CATHOLIC ASSOCIATION FOR INTERNATIONAL PEACE 1312 Massachusetts Avenue N W . Washing
3. ng to promote that condition and aim of peace described by His Holiness, Pope Pius X
4. , Pope Pius X I I : "The more Christian justice, fraternity and charity animate and gui
5. possible, indeed easy, the solution of many problems which today appear, or really
6. THE OBLIGATION OF CATHOLICS TO PROMOTE PEACE RT. REV. JOHN A. RYAN, D . D . and T H
7. THE CATHOLIC ASSOCIATION INTERNATIONAL PEACE 1312 Massachusetts Avenue NW. FOR Washi
8. atholic Association for InI ternational Peace, March 25, 26, 1940, at I which these t
9. presented was "American Catholics and [ World Peace Today." The guide of the meet- J
10. ted was "American Catholics and [ World Peace Today." The guide of the meet- J ing wa
11. meet- J ing was the five conditions for peace laid j down by His Holiness, Pope Pius
12. 9: I I j | f J | | I 1 1. "The right to life and independence" of I I all nations. I
13. les. I | 5. Observance of principles of justice and i I charity by statesmen and people
14. Message is available in "Pius XII and I Peace," National Catholic Welfare Confer- | e
15. rpHE Obligation of Catholics to Promote Peace" is A issued as a report of the Committ
16. Catholic Association for International Peace. "The Rights of Peoples" is issued as a
17. e Com- mittees co-operated in the final form of the reports and they were presented
18. Catholic Association for International Peace EXECUTIVE COUNCIL Honorary President MO
19. , D.D. President JOHN L. McMAHON, PH.D. Vice-Presidents EDWARD S. SKILLIN, JR. REV.
20. cs -- Rt. Rev. Msgr. John A. Ryan, D.D. Law and Organization -- Charles G. Fenwick,
21. T I O N OF C A T H O L I C S TO PROMOTE PEACE HAVE we an obligation to promote peace
22. PEACE HAVE we an obligation to promote peace among the warring nations of Europe and
23. ? Insofar as we are charged with such a duty our task would seem to be that of creat
24. ir cessation would involve some kind of peace, but the peace has to be produced befor
25. uld involve some kind of peace, but the peace has to be produced before it can be pro
26. ng the belligerents which would lead to peace and be favorable to peace. Have we any
27. would lead to peace and be favorable to peace. Have we any obligation to do anything
28. g toward this end? When we consider the war-torn world today and the refusal of so
29. this end? When we consider the war-torn world today and the refusal of so many rulers
30. -torn world today and the refusal of so many rulers to have any regard for reason, j
31. y rulers to have any regard for reason, justice, or love in their national aims and met
32. have any regard for reason, justice, or love in their national aims and methods, we
33. wer. Obligations suppose possibilities. One is obliged to act only when and to the
34. things are wrought by prayer than this world dreams of," now, as always, expresses a
35. ways, expresses a fruitful and profound truth. World peace may for a time be unattain
36. xpresses a fruitful and profound truth. World peace may for a time be unattainable by
37. es a fruitful and profound truth. World peace may for a time be unattainable by men b
38. d profound truth. World peace may for a time be unattainable by men but with God all
39. a time be unattainable by men but with God all things are possible. In the eloquen
40. r in the Encyclical Summi Pontificatus: God can do all things: As well as the happi
41. : God can do all things: As well as the happiness and the fortunes of nations, He holds i
42. when you offer the Divine Sacrifice of Love. Do you, too, pray, you whose courageou
43. receive in Holv Communion the Bread of Life, raise up your simple and innocent pray
44. rayers and unite them with those of the Universal Church. The Heart of Jesus, Who loves y
45. st your suppliant innocence. Pray every one, pray uninterruptedly: "Pray without ce
46. hesitation or reservation. Prayers for peace, however, are subject to two limitation
47. owever, are subject to two limitations: one set up by the spirit and one by the int
48. mitations: one set up by the spirit and one by the intellect. There is danger that
49. by the intellect. There is danger that many will not pray as fervently and as conti
50. he intellect. There is danger that many will not pray as fervently and as continuous
51. ontinuously as they might. Such persons will be so overwhelmed by the pessimism whic
52. nherent in present conditions that they will almost despair of Divine intervention.
53. ntervention. At any rate, their prayers will be accompanied by considerably less fai
54. considerably less faith than that which will move mountains. In other words, their p
55. than that which will move mountains. In other words, their petitions will lack one or
56. ntains. In other words, their petitions will lack one or more of the qualities which
57. other words, their petitions will lack one or more of the qualities which are nece
58. e [6] from the Holy Father. An Almighty God can bring about peace even from the pre
59. Father. An Almighty God can bring about peace even from the present discouraging situ
60. ent discouraging situation. An All-Wise God will restore peace to the world in His
61. discouraging situation. An All-Wise God will restore peace to the world in His own g
62. situation. An All-Wise God will restore peace to the world in His own good time. The
63. All-Wise God will restore peace to the world in His own good time. The second limita
64. l restore peace to the world in His own good time. The second limitation to prayer a
65. tore peace to the world in His own good time. The second limitation to prayer as a m
66. ation to prayer as a means of obtaining peace is that by itself it is not sufficient.
67. irely fulfill our obligation to promote peace. Prayer is efficacious only when it is
68. t is supported and complemented by such other actions as are within the reach of thos
69. se who help themselves." In the present war situation as in all other situations th
70. In the present war situation as in all other situations the petitioner must contribu
71. of his abilities and opportunities. Too many persons assume that they are doing thei
72. s assume that they are doing their full duty for peace when they offer up more or le
73. that they are doing their full duty for peace when they offer up more or less heartfe
74. the rest they are willing to "leave to God." While this may sound like an edifying
75. rson is justified in "leaving it all to God" until he has made a reasonable effort
76. What human means are available to us in relation to the re-establishment of peace among
77. in relation to the re-establishment of peace among the belligerent nations? There is
78. among the belligerent nations? There is one negative recourse. We can avoid feeling
79. ns of hatred against the peoples of the war-afflicted countries. If we believe that
80. y condemn their wickedness. We may even desire that they will, by legitimate means, be
81. ickedness. We may even desire that they will, by legitimate means, be overthrown, de
82. osed, and rendered incapable of further evil. And if we conscientiously pass this ju
83. il. And if we conscientiously pass this judgment upon any of these destructive personage
84. hese destructive personages there is no good reason why we should not give that judg
85. good reason why we should not give that judgment expression. [7] On the other hand, ther
86. ve that judgment expression. [7] On the other hand, there is no justification for vis
87. people. Even though the peoples now at war are actively and deliberately supportin
88. ctively and deliberately supporting the evil and unjust policies of their leaders, t
89. licies of their leaders, they may be in good faith. They may think they are right. T
90. refore, they do not deserve any sort of punishment, not even in the form of mental attitud
91. any sort of punishment, not even in the form of mental attitudes, on the part of the
92. inately to the German people during the World War was cruel, irrational, un-Christian
93. y to the German people during the World War was cruel, irrational, un-Christian and
94. toward the vanquished at Versailles. No matter where their sympathies may lie as betwe
95. llowing this course, American Catholics will not only set a good example to the nati
96. American Catholics will not only set a good example to the nations at war, but will
97. ly set a good example to the nations at war, but will establish a claim to be heard
98. good example to the nations at war, but will establish a claim to be heard when defi
99. o be heard when definite efforts toward peace are finally undertaken. In the matter o
100. rd peace are finally undertaken. In the matter of positive action, we can adopt a favo
101. ry honest effort to effect an honorable peace before the belligerents have completely
102. completely exhausted themselves. If the war continues until one or other of the con
103. themselves. If the war continues until one or other of the contending parties is d
104. lves. If the war continues until one or other of the contending parties is decisively
105. g parties is decisively defeated, there will be an acute danger that the only gains
106. be an acute danger that the only gains will go to Stalin and Communism. In particul
107. ins will go to Stalin and Communism. In particular, the possibility that Communism will ar
108. ticular, the possibility that Communism will arise in a defeated Germany should be g
109. reful and anxious consideration. On the other hand, a decisive victory by Hitler woul
110. ry by Hitler would prevent at least for many years the resurrection of Poland and wo
111. and Czechoslovakia. The restoration of peace before the occurrence of any of these d
112. e is, of course, the possibility that a peace established in the near future would re
113. uture would represent a compromise with evil, that it would permit the consolidation
114. efforts to paganize the German people. Many of us would regard this alternative as
115. ld regard this alternative as a greater evil than a continuation of the war. The pre
116. greater evil than a continuation of the war. The predicament in which the lover of
117. . The predicament in which the lover of peace finds himself is grave, indeed, and the
118. and France would begin negotiations for peace, or even entertain proposals for mediat
119. were obviously put in jeopardy. On the other hand, initial moves for mediation could
120. Czechoslovakia and the safeguarding of religion. Whenever approaches are made which do
121. fort toward the establishment of a just peace is that of demanding that the Allies ma
122. er their intentions concerning the post-war settlement. There must be no repetition
123. ration of Poland and Czechoslovakia. No peace arrangements will be just and durable w
124. d Czechoslovakia. No peace arrangements will be just and durable which do not leave
125. es not imply "Lebensraum" in the brutal form proposed by Hitler, but it does mean a
126. vital importance in the final terms of peace. In this relation the following sentenc
127. ce in the final terms of peace. In this relation the following sentences from the Encycl
128. tinent and wise: To hope for a decisive change exclusively from the shock of war and i
129. ve change exclusively from the shock of war and its final issue is idle, as experie
130. of war and its final issue is idle, as experience shows. The hour of victory is an hour o
131. he hour of temptation. In this hour the angel of justice strives with the demons of v
132. f temptation. In this hour the angel of justice strives with the demons of violence; th
133. is hardened; moderation and far-seeing wisdom appear to him weakness; the excited pas
134. else than injustice under the cloak of justice. Once the bitterness and the cruel stri
135. esent have ceased, the new order of the world, of national and international life, mu
136. he world, of national and international life, must rest no longer on the quicksands
137. oundation, on the solid rock of natural law and of Divine Revelation. Another immed
138. help in keeping our own country out of war. This does not imply the advocacy of a
139. the long run [10] would not benefit the other countries of the world. The facts and r
140. not benefit the other countries of the world. The facts and reasons which support th
141. ry to consider the question whether the war activities of Hitler and Stalin might n
142. of Hitler and Stalin might not, after a time, become so threatening to civilization
143. come so threatening to civilization and religion as to create a moral obligation of acti
144. Catholic Association for International Peace, the first of the points it emphasizes
145. of the points it emphasizes is that the Peace Association should "help to keep the Un
146. "help to keep the United States out of war." That remains a moral obligation. At p
147. moral obligation. At present, it is the duty of Catholics as of all other Americans
148. , it is the duty of Catholics as of all other Americans to seek out and utilize every
149. enting our involvement in the conflict. One of these methods is to avoid and discou
150. hallow thinking and lazy evasion of the duty of analysis. The forces that supposedly
151. of analysis. The forces that supposedly will drag us into the war against our wills
152. s that supposedly will drag us into the war against our wills do not exist. The for
153. ans continuous attention, agitation and education. In this connection there is much exagg
154. sed so generally and so loosely that in many minds it stands for something mystifyin
155. skepticism, or suspicion. There is not time here to enumerate the reasons why the e
156. much smaller now than it was during the World War. Undoubtedly, the propaganda to whi
157. maller now than it was during the World War. Undoubtedly, the propaganda to which w
158. ch we shall be exposed during this [li] war will be less obvious and more subtle th
159. e shall be exposed during this [li] war will be less obvious and more subtle than th
160. s have some conception of the insidious quality of the new methods. Nevertheless, there
161. n. Our principal obligations to promote peace and our opportunities to do so lie in t
162. es to do so lie in the general field of education for peace rather than in our relations
163. e in the general field of education for peace rather than in our relations to phases
164. Catholic Association for International Peace remains essentially the same as it has
165. rnational Peace remains essentially the same as it has always been. It is to apply C
166. nciples to the dealings of nations with one another. In this connection, part of th
167. "Totalitarianism" should be quoted: The idea which credits the State with unlimited
168. d be quoted: The idea which credits the State with unlimited authority is not simply
169. simply an error harmful to the internal life of nations, to their prosperity, and to
170. and well-ordered increase in their well-being, but likewise it injures the relations
171. ity of supra-national society, robs the law of nations of its foundation and vigor,
172. and in the direction of their internal life. But for all that, the human race is bo
173. to a great commonwealth directed to the good of all nations and ruled by special law
174. , non-Catholic as well as Catholic, the knowledge of the principles of char- [12] ity, ju
175. ge of the principles of char- [12] ity, justice and social justice in relation to inter
176. s of char- [12] ity, justice and social justice in relation to international affairs. I
177. [12] ity, justice and social justice in relation to international affairs. If the meanin
178. country, nine-tenths of the dangers of war would disappear. This is a generalizati
179. e, subject to exceptions. Comprehensive knowledge of the moral law is not sufficient to d
180. s. Comprehensive knowledge of the moral law is not sufficient to deter men of bad w
181. w is not sufficient to deter men of bad will from making war if they think it politi
182. nt to deter men of bad will from making war if they think it politically expedient.
183. ose who show some respect for the moral law and are capable of applying it internat
184. otherhood, the possibility of permanent peace and the fallacy of indefinite preparedn
185. preparedness, while statesmen stand in particular need of becoming familiar with the prin
186. nciples of international ethics. Today, one of these educational tasks perhaps requ
187. dequate preparedness," would not obtain universal assent today. Whatever be our differing
188. appropriations for additional armament will not be voted by Congress until they hav
189. received full and free discussion. The other aims specified in the extract quoted ab
190. must be taught [13] a right attitude of mind toward all foreigners. It is not enough
191. not enough to declare that "every human being is my neighbor." The obligations which
192. Men must be reminded that "every human being" includes Frenchmen, Germans, Italians,
193. Englishmen, Japanese, Chinese, and all other divisions of the human family. And this
194. e, and all other divisions of the human family. And this doctrine should be repeated a
195. e recent ebulition of anti-Semitism and other forms of racial antagonism. Sometimes t
196. the race or nationality of an unworthy citizen, or the practice of disclaiming condemn
197. e members of a certain race while using language whose clear tendency and effect is to c
198. s to convey precisely that meaning. Any form of words which causes the members of a
199. r own minds, is contrary to charity and justice. All such language and propaganda are i
200. ntrary to charity and justice. All such language and propaganda are injurious to the cau
201. age and propaganda are injurious to the cause of peace. Nationalism, or excessive nat
202. ropaganda are injurious to the cause of peace. Nationalism, or excessive nationalism,
203. lism, is still a deadly obstacle to the cause of universal brotherhood. "The peoples
204. still a deadly obstacle to the cause of universal brotherhood. "The peoples of the earth,
205. ples of the earth," said Pope Pius XI, "form but one family in God." It will not be
206. he earth," said Pope Pius XI, "form but one family in God." It will not be out of p
207. arth," said Pope Pius XI, "form but one family in God." It will not be out of place he
208. d Pope Pius XI, "form but one family in God." It will not be out of place here to r
209. us XI, "form but one family in God." It will not be out of place here to repeat the
210. not be out of place here to repeat the same Pontiff's well-known condemnation of na
211. of nationalism in his Encyclical on the Peace of Christ: Patriotism -- the stimulus o
212. hrist: Patriotism -- the stimulus of so many virtues and of so many noble acts of he
213. e stimulus of so many virtues and of so many noble acts of heroism when kept within
214. oism when kept within the bounds of the law of Christ -- becomes merely an occasion
215. incentive, to grave injustice when true love of country is debased to the condition
216. are our brothers and we members of the same great human family, that other nations
217. and we members of the same great human family, that other nations have an equal right
218. rs of the same great human family, that other nations have an equal right with us bot
219. ons have an equal right with us both to life and to prosperity, that it is never [14
220. morality from the affairs of practical life, that, in the last analysis, it is "jus
221. ife, that, in the last analysis, it is "justice which exalteth a nation: but sin maketh
222. s "justice which exalteth a nation: but sin maketh nations miserable" (Proverbs xiv
223. t society "is the forgetfulness of that law of human solidarity and charity which i
224. imposed by our common origin and by the equality of rational nature in all men, to whate
225. origin and by the equality of rational nature in all men, to whatever people they bel
226. . . . . But legitimate and well-ordered love of our native country should not make u
227. us close our eyes to the all-embracing nature of Christian charity, which calls for c
228. eir interests in the pacifying light of love." Modern nationalism is a complex pheno
229. sm, Nationalism, and the Brotherhood of Man," describes three forms of nationalism,
230. e and exclusive loyalty to the national state coupled with an intolerance of dissent:
231. m and belligerency, and an adoration of one's nation and its government." The third
232. nd an adoration of one's nation and its government." The third of these forms is not consp
233. also does the first part of the second form. "A feeling of superiority and haughty
234. ts of some rulers of Europe have caused many of us to look upon Europeans as incapab
235. he Pharisee in the Gospel story thanked God that he was not like other men, "even a
236. story thanked God that he was not like other men, "even as this Publican." Modern Am
237. lican." Modern American pharisees thank God that they are better than all foreign p
238. espised foreigners if they lived in the same conditions. Catholics need to become pe
239. need to become persuaded that permanent peace is possible. The considerations which m
240. twenty years ago. Since the end of the war that was going to end war forever, a do
241. he end of the war that was going to end war forever, a dozen or more States have pu
242. rses which constantly impel them toward war, and at least two nations have delibera
243. rned all rational methods of preserving peace. Nevertheless, we must continue to beli
244. continue to believe in and strive for a peace that will be lasting. We must continue
245. believe in and strive for a peace that will be lasting. We must continue to have fa
246. aith that Christianity and civilization will not perish from the face of the earth.
247. rom the face of the earth. Never in the world's history was mankind more in need of t
248. face of the earth. Never in the world's history was mankind more in need of the Seventh
249. or they shall be called the children of God." In the inscrutable designs of Provide
250. l rest upon the banners of the hosts of peace and righteousness, even at the moment w
251. eousness, even at the moment when their cause seems almost hopeless. Let us repeat he
252. ely confident words of the Holy Father: God can do all things. As well as the happi
253. : God can do all things. As well as the happiness and the fortunes of nations, He holds i
254. ons of American Catholics regarding the peace arrangements which should follow the ce
255. tion of the present conflict. Permanent peace, just peace, will not ensue automatical
256. present conflict. Permanent peace, just peace, will not ensue automatically. . It wil
257. conflict. Permanent peace, just peace, will not ensue automatically. . It will not
258. ace, will not ensue automatically. . It will not necessarily be established through
259. Pontificatus. Almost at the end of the same Encyclical, the Holy Father expresses h
260. s hope for "the reconstruction of a new world based on justice and love . . ." Undoub
261. reconstruction of a new world based on justice and love . . ." Undoubtedly, he expects
262. ion of a new world based on justice and love . . ." Undoubtedly, he expects that thi
263. ly, he expects that this reconstruction will be achieved through some form of world
264. struction will be achieved through some form of world organization; for less than a
265. n will be achieved through some form of world organization; for less than a month aft
266. dual and collective morality: Then only will they succeed in effectuating and perfec
267. ganization such as is desired by men of good will, an organization which, respecting
268. ation such as is desired by men of good will, an organization which, respecting the
269. ization which, respecting the rights of God, will be able to assure the reciprocal
270. on which, respecting the rights of God, will be able to assure the reciprocal indepe
271. agreed upon, and to safeguard the just liberty and dignity of the human person in each
272. and dignity of the human person in each one's efforts towards the prosperity of all
273. the prosperity of all. Finally, in his peace program outlined to the members of the
274. ates taking in all the countries of the world or at least those of Europe? Instead of
275. al organization for the preservation of peace following the World War. All three stat
276. the preservation of peace following the World War. All three statements are sum- mari
277. eservation of peace following the World War. All three statements are sum- marized
278. sion that penalties be imposed upon any State which should refuse either to submit a
279. the year, 1918, he expressed a fervent desire for an international organization which
280. tion which, "by abolishing conscription will reduce armaments; by establishing inter
281. by establishing international tribunals will eliminate or settle disputes; and by pl
282. nate or settle disputes; and by placing peace on a solid foundation will guarantee to
283. by placing peace on a solid foundation will guarantee to all independence and equal
284. will guarantee to all independence and equality of rights." In his encyclical on "Inter
285. ciliation," Pentecost Sunday, 1920, the same Pontiff laid particular stress upon the
286. ost Sunday, 1920, the same Pontiff laid particular stress upon the association of the Stat
287. put aside mutual suspicion and unite in one sole society or rather family of people
288. and unite in one sole society or rather family of peoples, both to guarantee their own
289. ure which can no longer be borne by the State, in order that in this way murderous an
290. uld be at least "a -«»ciety or rather a family of peoples." Unfortunately [18] the Int
291. us States and was conducted in much the same vengeful spirit that these same States
292. uch the same vengeful spirit that these same States had embodied in the treaty of pe
293. me States had embodied in the treaty of peace. Probably this fact was mainly responsi
294. his fact was mainly responsible for the opposition of American Catholics to American membe
295. have exercised sufficient influence to change the principal injustices of the peace t
296. change the principal injustices of the peace treaty and to develop an effective inst
297. d to develop an effective instrument of world peace and world justice. Of course, we
298. evelop an effective instrument of world peace and world justice. Of course, we cannot
299. effective instrument of world peace and world justice. Of course, we cannot be certai
300. ive instrument of world peace and world justice. Of course, we cannot be certain that A
301. pation could have caused the whole post-war history to be different and infinitely
302. on could have caused the whole post-war history to be different and infinitely better;
303. ents in Germany, Russia, Italy and some other countries could not have been worse tha
304. are and have been since the end of the World War; (3) the assumption that the repres
305. nd have been since the end of the World War; (3) the assumption that the representa
306. sitting face [19] to face with those of other countries at a conference table. Howeve
307. onference table. However, the regretful history of the League of Nations -- its dominat
308. future. What is important is that some form of world organization must be created f
309. What is important is that some form of world organization must be created following
310. anization must be created following the war, must be created in the spirit of justi
311. e war, must be created in the spirit of justice and charity, and must include the Unite
312. include the United States therein. What form it should take, the Ethics Committee of
313. hould take, the Ethics Committee of the Peace Association leaves for consideration to
314. Association leaves for consideration to other committees of this organization. At any
315. ican Catholics are subject to the moral law of nature and of revelation. They may n
316. tholics are subject to the moral law of nature and of revelation. They may not forget
317. our nation has obligations not only of justice but of charity to all other nations. If
318. t only of justice but of charity to all other nations. If it becomes evident, as it s
319. ns. If it becomes evident, as it surely will, that the United States can make a very
320. ibution to "the reconstruction of a new world based on justice and love"--to quote th
321. reconstruction of a new world based on justice and love"--to quote the Holy Father --
322. ion of a new world based on justice and love"--to quote the Holy Father -- by joinin
323. er -- by joining a league or society or family of peoples at the end of the present wa
324. ly of peoples at the end of the present war, let us hope that no important Catholic
325. s hope that no important Catholic voice will be raised in opposition. Let us hope th
326. ortant Catholic voice will be raised in opposition. Let us hope that no intelligent person
327. Let us hope that no intelligent person will be misled by "isolationists," who speak
328. Levite who refused to help the wounded man on the way to Jericho. Let us hope that
329. he way to Jericho. Let us hope that not many Catholics will be misled by the shallow
330. ho. Let us hope that not many Catholics will be misled by the shallow epithet "inter
331. the saying of Pius XI, "all peoples are one great family." Let us hope that Catholi
332. of Pius XI, "all peoples are one great family." Let us hope that Catholics will suppo
333. eat family." Let us hope that Catholics will support every reasonable effort that ma
334. ish an effective league, or society, or family of peoples. [20] APPENDIX N . C. W . C.
335. uss the distinction between "promoting" peace and "creating" peace in the present cir
336. etween "promoting" peace and "creating" peace in the present circumstances. 2. Discus
337. the obligation of prayer in the present world crisis. 3. Limitations on prayers for p
338. d crisis. 3. Limitations on prayers for peace. a. By the spirit: Lack of faith. b. By
339. . b. By the intellect: Unaccompanied by other action. Suggested Papers: Review of Sec
340. eview of Section VI "Prayer: A Means to Peace" in the Study Outline of "Pius XII and
341. " in the Study Outline of "Pius XII and Peace." (N. C. W. C.), and sections on Prayer
342. C.), and sections on Prayer in "A Papal Peace Mosaic" (C. A. I-J P.) (See Index). "Th
343. See Index). "The Liturgical Prayers for Peace." Suggested Action: Institution of perp
344. n: Institution of perpetual novenas for peace (of Masses, Rosaries or special devotio
345. rish and city-wide public devotions for peace. Send news story on activities to C. A.
346. nsible for international injustices and war? 3. May we condemn a whole people? Why
347. of avoiding expressions of hatred: a. A good example. b. Establishment of claim to b
348. . Establishment of claim to be heard in peace efforts. Suggested paper: Review of "Pa
349. ism, Nationalism and the Brotherhood of Man" (C. A. I. P.). III. H U M A N MEANS: P
350. tude toward efforts to secure honorable peace. What are the dangers of: a. Possibilit
351. are the dangers of: a. Possibilities of war continuing until both parties are exhau
352. by Hitler? c. Possibilities of an early peace representing compromise with evil? [21]
353. arly peace representing compromise with evil? [21] 2. Demand that Allies make cleare
354. nd Pius XI's "Ubi Arcano" (See "A Papal Peace Mosaic," C. A. I. P.). I V . K E E P I
355. ed States participation benefit self or other countries? 3. Ways of keeping out of wa
356. er countries? 3. Ways of keeping out of war: a. Avoidance of defeatist attitude. b.
357. propaganda. Suggested Paper: Review of "War Propaganda and the United States," by L
358. University Press, New Haven, 1940. V . EDUCATION FOR PEACE ( p p . 1 2 , 1 3 ) 1. Major
359. ess, New Haven, 1940. V . EDUCATION FOR PEACE ( p p . 1 2 , 1 3 ) 1. Major task of Pe
360. CE ( p p . 1 2 , 1 3 ) 1. Major task of Peace Association -- to apply Christian moral
361. principles to dealings of nations with one another. 2. Discuss the Encyclical "Sum
362. Suggested Papers: Review of sections on Justice and Charity in "A Papal Peace Mosaic" (
363. ions on Justice and Charity in "A Papal Peace Mosaic" (C. A. I. P.) and "Pius XII and
364. Mosaic" (C. A. I. P.) and "Pius XII and Peace" (N. C. W. C.). See Index and Study Clu
365. ne. Review of sections on Educating for Peace in "International Ethics" and "Patrioti
366. nalism and the B r o t h e r h o o d of Man." (C. A. I. P.). V I . FIELDS OF EDUCAT
367. of Man." (C. A. I. P.). V I . FIELDS OF EDUCATION ( p p . 1 3 - 2 0 ) 1. Discuss the Ethi
368. ersality of brotherhood and its special necessity now in view of present violations. 3. N
369. Nationalism as an obstacle. Discuss its nature and elements as applied to the United S
370. States. 4. The possibility of permanent peace. 5. Discussion of Papal statements rega
371. iscussion of Papal statements regarding world organization, in connection with the fa
372. h the failure of the League of Nations; relation and obligation of the United States the
373. Suggested Paper: Review of "The Pope's Peace Program and the United States," Eagan (
374. S OF PEOPLES rpHOMISTIC ETHICS is not a science that can deduce a priori the particular
375. a science that can deduce a priori the particular rules that can and must guide the singu
376. an be acquired by the analysis of human nature in the abstract, the norms for action m
377. st be constructed in the light of human experience. Situations must be carefully studied,
378. chological. Our analysis of the problem will try to respect this characteristic of s
379. res that "a point which should be given particular attention if better arrangement of Euro
380. g to what has been in the past a potent cause of war, as well as a constant and major
381. has been in the past a potent cause of war, as well as a constant and major obstac
382. onstant and major obstacle to permanent peace, the needs, namely, on the one hand, th
383. manent peace, the needs, namely, on the one hand, that nations and peoples experien
384. the one hand, that nations and peoples experience for decent and secure existence, and th
385. cure existence, and the desires, on the other hand, of ethnical minorities within a n
386. freedom of action consonant with their particular culture. Here are two problems, the rig
387. ed, are distinct. Clarity of exposition will be enhanced by treating these two probl
388. ralist is aware that in the recent past many rich and powerful nations have adopted
389. ul nations have adopted a policy toward other nations that must be characterized [23]
390. d [23] as immoral. This policy has been one either of passive indifference to their
391. d by a spirit of self-sufficiency and a desire for greater prosperity, nations have, f
392. actions might have upon the fortunes of other peoples struggling to subsist. That hig
393. iency of the past should be replaced by one of co-operation among nations in solvin
394. in the process to cripple economically other nations, because they have succumbed to
395. onum of their respective peoples is the State. Nationalism is prevalent everywhere to
396. rth are destined for exploitation by no particular group of people or particular nation ex
397. ion by no particular group of people or particular nation exclusively, but that they are g
398. reator for the welfare of all men. This principle does not mean that a nation favored by
399. he exploitation should not be such that other nations are injured, or unduly deprived
400. inciples that govern the disposition of wealth [24] by the individual man can be appli
401. sition of wealth [24] by the individual man can be applied mutatis mutandis to the
402. can be applied mutatis mutandis to the State. No individual has the moral right to s
403. recklessly or to exploit selfishly the wealth at his command, when his fellow men are
404. want. Similarly, the rich and powerful State has not the right to utilize its own re
405. es in a manner that deprives the poorer State of the opportunity for achieving a dece
406. decent standard of living. It is then a matter of justice that the "have-not" nations
407. ndard of living. It is then a matter of justice that the "have-not" nations be permitte
408. ation of those material resources which other nations have in superabundance. The dem
409. e in superabundance. The demands of the family of mankind here override the claims of
410. e override the claims of the individual State. It is right reason that dictates that
411. It is right reason that dictates that "world resources, equipment and technique, i.
412. echnique, i. e., the unity, variety and change of the world economic life are to serve
413. ., the unity, variety and change of the world economic life are to serve the human in
414. ariety and change of the world economic life are to serve the human interests of all
415. ll peoples everywhere."1 The demands of justice, moreover, cannot be ignored on the ple
416. physical, cultural, religious and moral life."2 The satisfaction of this demand of j
417. e."2 The satisfaction of this demand of justice does not necessarily mean physical poss
418. or resources presently in the hands of other nations. Such a shifting of direct cont
419. ould undoubtedly produce more harm than good, and specifically would constitute a ma
420. re are more effective ways of adjusting world economy. Promotion of the free flow of
421. s to the nations in need. The paramount necessity, however, is ac- 1 " I n t e r n a t i
422. Catholic Association for International Peace, p. 8. 2 Ibid., p . 8. [25] cessibility
423. ange their surpluses for the goods they desire. The requirements of social justice mus
424. they desire. The requirements of social justice must be emphasized. Social justice dema
425. cial justice must be emphasized. Social justice demands that each nation do its part in
426. vidual is obliged to promote the common good of the society of which he is a member,
427. a member, so likewise is the individual State obliged to act for the good of human so
428. individual State obliged to act for the good of human society as a whole. Social jus
429. ood of human society as a whole. Social justice dictates that the strong and prosperous
430. quipment for the best possible cultural life. As Pius XI has said in his Encyclical
431. cyclical Quadrcigesimo Anno: "Then only will the economic and social order be soundl
432. and to each, all those goods which the wealth and resources of nature, technical scie
433. goods which the wealth and resources of nature, technical science and the corporate or
434. alth and resources of nature, technical science and the corporate organization of socia
435. o uplift men to that higher standard of life which, provided it be used with prudenc
436. of life which, provided it be used with prudence is not only not a hindrance but is of s
437. a hindrance but is of singular help to virtue." The virtue of Christian charity reinf
438. but is of singular help to virtue." The virtue of Christian charity reinforces here th
439. n charity reinforces here the claims of justice. The human race is one family of brothe
440. he claims of justice. The human race is one family of brothers under the Fatherhood
441. laims of justice. The human race is one family of brothers under the Fatherhood of God
442. ily of brothers under the Fatherhood of God. Charity dictates that the stronger ass
443. Charity does not stop at the demands of justice, but rather prompts one to give in abun
444. demands of justice, but rather prompts one to give in abundance. At the very minim
445. mum charity insures that the demands of justice are fulfilled readily. "We are more pro
446. readily. "We are more prompt to render justice to those whom we truly love" (Thomas Aq
447. o render justice to those whom we truly love" (Thomas Aquinas). Justice and charity
448. e whom we truly love" (Thomas Aquinas). Justice and charity are the twin agents of inte
449. ty are the twin agents of international peace, justice removing the obstacles to tran
450. the twin agents of international peace, justice removing the obstacles to tranquillity
451. hearts which is the essence of genuine peace. No nation is exempt from the obligatio
452. demands of peoples and thus to promote world peace. A problem that affects humanity
453. ds of peoples and thus to promote world peace. A problem that affects humanity as a w
454. lem that affects humanity as a whole is one that morally obligates all of humanity.
455. he role of the United States, moreover, will probably be a decisive one. If a spirit
456. , moreover, will probably be a decisive one. If a spirit of extreme isolationism pr
457. ons, it is very likely that the problem will remain unsolved, or will find temporary
458. at the problem will remain unsolved, or will find temporary "solutions" in a success
459. ist suggest for adoption at the present time? There appear at present to be two meth
460. consists in the promotion of a kind of peace following the present war that will be
461. f a kind of peace following the present war that will be consonant with the require
462. of peace following the present war that will be consonant with the requirements of j
463. l be consonant with the requirements of justice and charity. That such a peace should l
464. nts of justice and charity. That such a peace should likewise involve some kind of wo
465. ce should likewise involve some kind of world organization, in which the United State
466. ade agreements between this country and other nations to insure the free flow of good
467. licit recognition by the nations of the world of the paramount claims of justice and
468. of the world of the paramount claims of justice and charity is essential in finally sol
469. em of the needs of peoples. Any kind of peace, or any adjustment of the demands of di
470. political considerations divorced from virtue, will fail to bring about a state of wo
471. al considerations divorced from virtue, will fail to bring about a state of world or
472. from virtue, will fail to bring about a state of world order and permanent peace. Hen
473. ue, will fail to bring about a state of world order and permanent peace. Hence the fi
474. ut a state of world order and permanent peace. Hence the first requirement for the ad
475. t for the adjustment of grievances is a change of heart. The problem, as we have said,
476. t. The problem, as we have said, is not one of inadequate resources, or lack of tec
477. dequate resources, or lack of technical knowledge. The problem is rather one of perverse
478. hnical knowledge. The problem is rather one of perverse human [27] nature, one larg
479. em is rather one of perverse human [27] nature, one largely of selfishness. The final
480. ther one of perverse human [27] nature, one largely of selfishness. The final solut
481. l minorities both in Europe, and in the world generally, is one of the most important
482. Europe, and in the world generally, is one of the most important and most difficul
483. lt political and social problems of our time. The World War in part had its origin i
484. al and social problems of our time. The World War in part had its origin in minority
485. social problems of our time. The World War in part had its origin in minority diff
486. rooted in common ancestry, traditions, language, culture or religion, which sets them o
487. estry, traditions, language, culture or religion, which sets them off from the majority
488. they live. Suppression of minorities in one way or another is not exclusively a mod
489. usively a modern phenomenon. Throughout history various nations have persecuted the min
490. idely accepted that nationality and the State are identical, in other words that a po
491. onality and the State are identical, in other words that a politically sovereign enti
492. been that minorities within a national State have found their traditions and customs
493. o the dominant national culture. At the same time, the spirit of nationalism has aff
494. dominant national culture. At the same time, the spirit of nationalism has affected
495. itorial revision that would permit some form of union with the State having their ow
496. ould permit some form of union with the State having their own cultural character. Th
497. some very few instances succeeded. But history demonstrates that minorities have usual
498. s to conform with that of the majority, experience attests to the futility of the process.
499. nvested it with their peculiar cultural life. Their case obviously differs from mino
500. ties which have voluntarily migrated to other countries already enjoying a more or le
501. ified culture. The former can demand in justice a recognition of their peculiar cultura
502. o a considerable extent to the cultural life to which they have willingly affixed th
503. the Versailles treaty, while mixing the matter, attempted in many ways to solve the mi
504. , while mixing the matter, attempted in many ways to solve the minority problem. The
505. ways to solve the minority problem. The principle of self-determination, or the right of
506. on it desires to belong, was applied in many instances and with a high degree of suc
507. effects of territorial revision by the Peace Treaty were not always just, but we sho
508. ways just, but we should not ignore the good results obtained. It was understood at
509. "right" would seriously harm the entire State, or when political independence would b
510. ndence would bring about more harm than good to the minority itself, the action can
511. justified. Where the application of the principle of "self-determination" appeared unfeas
512. he Allied and Associated Powers adopted other measures to insure respect for the righ
513. has been another method tried since the World War to solve the difficulty. But the at
514. en another method tried since the World War to solve the difficulty. But the attemp
515. so long as the conception prevails that State and nationality are the same, that is,
516. ails that State and nationality are the same, that is, that the political ideals of
517. itical ideals of the inhabitants of the State should be identical with the national-c
518. d, it should be possible for members of many nationalities to live together in compl
519. ging. Switzerland is almost unique as a State which has solved the problem in a happy
520. f them. The traditions and customs, the language and particular loyalties, of each group
521. raditions and customs, the language and particular loyalties, of each group are respected.
522. respected. The federal character of the State permits a measure of autonomy for the d
523. the distinction between nationality and State. When other countries will have attaine
524. ion between nationality and State. When other countries will have attained the (on th
525. onality and State. When other countries will have attained the (on the whole) humane
526. iss, the problem of ethnical minorities will be solved. With the advent of the prese
527. solved. With the advent of the present war the plight of minorities, both ethnical
528. late basic natural rights: the right to life itself, to education, to religious wors
529. al rights: the right to life itself, to education, to religious worship, and the right to
530. ties was perhaps never graver in modern history than it is at the present time. If we t
531. odern history than it is at the present time. If we take the long-range view, the mo
532. the long-range view, the most practical form of protection of minorities is the proc
533. a bill of rights for the peoples of the world, to be incorporated within the provisio
534. This bill of rights would enunciate the principle that no group of people should be depri
535. beings because of national- [31] ity or religion. It would also proclaim the principle t
536. or religion. It would also proclaim the principle that minority groups have the right to
537. to preserve their traditions, customs, language and religion, insofar as these latter a
538. their traditions, customs, language and religion, insofar as these latter are not oppose
539. se latter are not opposed to the common good of the State. The international body wo
540. e not opposed to the common good of the State. The international body would be empowe
541. s, has both the right and sometimes the duty to concern itself with violations of hu
542. peoples. A crime perpetrated against a particular group of fellow humans is a crime again
543. rity to assist the oppressed. Just what form such assistance should take in any part
544. form such assistance should take in any particular case must be determined, of course, acc
545. ircumstances. But however difficult the particular application may be, the general princip
546. ticular application may be, the general principle is both clear and certain. The spirit o
547. es, is contrary to Christian ethics. No one can deny that the American people displ
548. people display great generosity in the matter of immediate material relief to the unf
549. , or by a reluctance to co-operate with other nations in solving the basic problem. I
550. plied to nationalities in the treaty of peace that will end the present European stru
551. tionalities in the treaty of peace that will end the present European struggle, and
552. , the role of our country appears to be one of the greatest importance. [32] Append
553. gnized as fundamental laws, and that no law, regulation or official action shall co
554. with these stipulations, nor shall any law, regulation or official action prevail
555. assure full and complete protection of life and liberty to all inhabitants of Polan
556. ull and complete protection of life and liberty to all inhabitants of Poland without di
557. hout distinction of birth, nationality, language, race or religion. All inhabitants of P
558. f birth, nationality, language, race or religion. All inhabitants of Poland shall be ent
559. hether public or private, of any creed, religion or belief, whose practices are not inco
560. ish nationals shall be equal before the law and shall enjoy the same civil and poli
561. qual before the law and shall enjoy the same civil and political rights without dist
562. rights without distinction as to race, language or religion. Differences of religion, c
563. out distinction as to race, language or religion. Differences of religion, creed or conf
564. e, language or religion. Differences of religion, creed or confession shall not prejudic
565. free use by any Polish national of any language in private intercourse, in commerce, in
566. in private intercourse, in commerce, in religion, in the press or in publications of any
567. tanding any establishment by the Polish Government of an official language, adequate facil
568. by the Polish Government of an official language, adequate facilities shall be given to
569. non-Polish speech for the use of their language, either orally or in writing, before th
570. r linguistic minorities shall enjoy the same treatment and security in law and in fa
571. njoy the same treatment and security in law and in fact as the other Polish nationa
572. and security in law and in fact as the other Polish nationals. In particular they sh
573. fact as the other Polish nationals. In particular they shall have an equal right to estab
574. us and social institutions, schools and other educational establishments, with the ri
575. hments, with the right to use their own language and to exercise their religion freely t
576. heir own language and to exercise their religion freely therein. 1 T e x t of t r e a t
577. orities," p. 502. [33] ARTICLE 9 Poland will provide in the public educational syste
578. rable proportion of Polish nationals of other than Polish speech are resident adequat
579. tionals through the medium of their own language. This provision shall not prevent the P
580. provision shall not prevent the Polish Government from making the teaching of the Polish
581. from making the teaching of the Polish language obligatory in the said schools. In town
582. provided out of public funds under the State, municipal or other budget, for educati
583. lic funds under the State, municipal or other budget, for educational, religious or c
584. ation in these Articles which is in due form assented to by a majority of the Counci
585. d further agrees that any difference of opinion as to questions of law or fact arising
586. ifference of opinion as to questions of law or fact arising out of these Articles b
587. ut of these Articles between the Polish Government and any one of the Principal Allied and
588. s between the Polish Government and any one of the Principal Allied and Associated
589. pal Allied and Associated Powers or any other Power, a Member of the Council of the L
590. nt of the League of Nations. The Polish Government hereby consents that any such dispute s
591. nts that any such dispute shall, if the other party thereto demands, be referred to t
592. to the Permanent Court of International Justice. The decision of the Permanent Court sh
593. Court shall be final and shall have the same force and effect as an award under Arti
594. 1. The general principles of ethics and particular cases. 2. What does the Pope mean when
595. the "have-nots" and the "haves." 4. The principle of the use of resources of earth for we
596. esources of earth for welfare of all in relation to an exploitation by the nation posses
597. ation possessing the resources. 5. Does justice demand that the have-not nations actual
598. possess resources now in possession of other nations? 6. Discuss free flow of trade,
599. pers: Review of "International Economic Life," C. A. I. P.; "Tariffs and World Peace
600. onomic Life," C. A. I. P.; "Tariffs and World Peace," C. A. I. P. I I . OBLIGATIONS O
601. Life," C. A. I. P.; "Tariffs and World Peace," C. A. I. P. I I . OBLIGATIONS OP JUST
602. eace," C. A. I. P. I I . OBLIGATIONS OP JUSTICE A N D CHARITY ( p p . 2 6 - 2 8 ) 1. Wh
603. 1. What are the requirements of social justice in this connection? 2. What are the req
604. : a. Promotion of a just and charitable peace · following the present war. b. Promoti
605. haritable peace · following the present war. b. Promotion of equitable trade agreem
606. ion of equitable trade agreements. c. A change of heart. Suggested Paper: Review of "T
607. Suggested Paper: Review of "The Pope's Peace Program and the United States," Eagan,
608. art played by minorities in causing the World War and the present European conflict.
609. ayed by minorities in causing the World War and the present European conflict. 2. P
610. s growth by identifying nationality and State? Effect of spirit of nationalism on min
611. n to the minority problem following the World War. Suggested Paper: Review of Chapter
612. he minority problem following the World War. Suggested Paper: Review of Chapters IV
613. effectiveness of separating concepts of State and nationality. 2. How has the plight
614. ities become intensified in the present war? 3. Discuss an international bill of ri
615. ational minorities. Its dependency on a world organization. 4. The obligation of the
616. ence on a bill of natural rights in the peace treaty to terminate the present strife.
617. Catholic Association for International Peace is a membership organization. Its objec
618. with the teachings of the Church, the "Peace of Christ in the Kingdom of Christ," th
619. ing Christian teaching to international life. It was organized in a series of meetin
620. e second held in Cleveland that fall to form an organizing committee, and the third
621. mbership and cooperation of those whose experience and studies are such that they can take
622. Catholic Association for International Peace has instructed its Committees during th
623. its Committees during the course of the war to concentrate on: (1) Means of prevent
624. ans of preventing our entrance into the war, including examination of the dangers o
625. including examination of the dangers of war trade and the threat of Nazi-Communism,
626. aganda and encouragement of prayers for peace. (2) Steps to bring about peace in Euro
627. ers for peace. (2) Steps to bring about peace in Europe including consideration of me
628. s. (3) Plans for American entrance into world organization so as to help to cure the
629. in economic, governmental and cultural life which have brought on this catastrophe
630. ral. They are known as Catholic Student Peace Federations and receive the co-operatio
631. rent organization. The Catholic Student Peace Federations are autonomous and function
632. ent officers, four faculty advisers and one regional faculty adviser. A national Co
633. United States.* No. 3 -- C a u s e s of War, and Security, Old and New 4 (out of pr
634. udes in Children. No. 11 -- Tariffs and World Peace.« No. 1 2 -- M a n c h u r i a --
635. n Children. No. 11 -- Tariffs and World Peace.« No. 1 2 -- M a n c h u r i a -- T h e
636. East.4 No. 13 -- International Economic Life 4 (out of print). No. 1 4 -- T h e Chur
637. of print). No. 1 4 -- T h e Church and Peace Efforts.6 No. 1 5 -- W a r and Peace in
638. nd Peace Efforts.6 No. 1 5 -- W a r and Peace in St. Augustine's " D e Civitate Dei."
639. ustine's " D e Civitate Dei." No. 16 -- Peace Education in Catholic Schools. Rela- No
640. 's " D e Civitate Dei." No. 16 -- Peace Education in Catholic Schools. Rela- No. 17 -- Pe
641. on in Catholic Schools. Rela- No. 17 -- Peace Action of Benedict X V . No. 18 -- Rela
642. ly. No. 19 -- Catholic Organization for Peace in Europe. No. 2 0 -- T h e United Stat
643. oduction to Mexico.4 No. 2 2 -- A Papal Peace Mosaic. No. 23 -- Arbitration and the W
644. e Mosaic. No. 23 -- Arbitration and the World Court.4 No. 24 -- Agriculture and Inter
645. No. 24 -- Agriculture and International Life.4 No. 25 -- Patriotism, Nationalism, an
646. h e Obligation of Catholics to Promote Peace, and The Rights of Peoples.* MISCELLANE
647. ples.* MISCELLANEOUS SERIES Appeals for Peace of Pope Benedict X V and Pope Pius X I
648. V and Pope Pius X I Catholic Primer of Peace Permanent Peace Program of Pope Benedic
649. X I Catholic Primer of Peace Permanent Peace Program of Pope Benedict X V Syllabus o
650. 25c 10c 10c · Catholic Tradition of the Law of Nations, John Eppstein $2.50 Monthly
651. 00 NATIONAL CATHOLIC WELFARE CONFERENCE PEACE PAMPHLETS Peace Statements of Recent Po
652. OLIC WELFARE CONFERENCE PEACE PAMPHLETS Peace Statements of Recent Popes The Christia
653. of Recent Popes The Christian W a y to Peace 4 Pius X I I and Peace 4 The Pope's Pea
654. ristian W a y to Peace 4 Pius X I I and Peace 4 The Pope's Peace Program and the Unit
655. ace 4 Pius X I I and Peace 4 The Pope's Peace Program and the United States 4 · Study

Author: Eric Lease Morgan <emorgan@nd.edu>
Date created: October 16, 2010
Date updated: August 23, 2016
URL: http://concordance.library.nd.edu/app/